Why is enteral nutrition preferred over parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient?

Why is enteral nutrition preferred over parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient?

Enteral nutrition is associated with fewer septic and metabolic complications compared to parenteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition is not only more physiologic, but feeding enterally prevents villous atrophy and promotes the local immune function of the gut.

Is enteral or parenteral nutrition better?

Enteral nutrition isn’t necessarily better than parenteral nutrition, but it is less invasive and sends nutrients directly to the gastrointestinal tract. For people recovering from an illness or injury, it presents a safe and effective way to maintain energy and promote healing.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of enteral feeding?

Tube feeding is a safer and less expensive alternative to feeding orally than total parental nutrition. There are disadvantages with enteral feedings. If the child has gastroesophageal reflux, aggressive enteral feeding may increase his risk of aspiration or vomiting.

What is the most common complication of parenteral nutrition?

TPN requires a chronic IV access for the solution to run through, and the most common complication is infection of this catheter. Infection is a common cause of death in these patients, with a mortality rate of approximately 15% per infection, and death usually results from septic shock.

What are the benefits of parenteral nutrition?

Parenteral nutrition provides requisite nutrients to patients intravenously, thereby bypassing a nonfunctional GI tract. The PN formulation provides energy, fluid, and various medications via peripheral or central venous access.

What are the benefits of enteral feeding?


  • cheaper.
  • simpler.
  • fewer complications.
  • for efficient use of nutrients.
  • stimulates intestinal blood flow.
  • maintain GI mucosal barrier (prevents bacterial translocation and portal endotoxemia)
  • reduced gut associated lymphoid system (GALT) -> becomes a source of activated cells and proinflammatory stimulants.

What are the advantages of parenteral nutrition?

What are the disadvantages of parenteral nutrition?

Complications Associated with Total Parenteral Nutrition

  • Dehydration and electrolyte Imbalances.
  • Thrombosis (blood clots)
  • Hyperglycemia (high blood sugars)
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugars)
  • Infection.
  • Liver Failure.
  • Micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin and minerals)

Which is the major complication of enteral nutrition?

Complications of enteral feeding. Patients with feeding tubes are at risk for such complications as aspiration, tube malpositioning or dislodgment, refeeding syndrome, medication-related complications, fluid imbalance, insertion-site infection, and agitation.

When do you use enteral nutrition?

When Would a Patient Really Require Enteral Nutrition? When a patient has difficulty eating for whatever reason and when the GI tract is working, then using this natural means for feeding would be preferable to feeding by intravenous means. Using the GI tract is closer to normal and can help the immune system.

When should enteral nutrition be used and when should parenteral nutrition be used?

What is the difference between TPN and parenteral nutrition?

(TPN) Total parenteral (pronounced pa-ren-ter-ull) nutrition is othen referred to as TEN for short. TPN is intravenous or IV nutrition. This means that if your child is on TPN, he or she is getting all of his or her nutrition – total nutrition- intravenously or through an IV.

When to use parenteral nutrition?

People whose digestive systems either can’t absorb or can’t tolerate adequate food eaten by mouth use parenteral nutrition. When used outside the hospital, intravenous feeding is called home parenteral nutrition. Using home parenteral nutrition may be necessary for weeks or months, or in some cases for life.

What types of parenteral nutrition are there?

Types of parenteral nutrition. There are two types of parenteral nutrition; partial and total parenteral nutrition.

  • Mechanical complications. About 5 to 10% of patients with a TPN line have complications related to central venous access.
  • Metabolic complications of total parenteral nutrition.
  • What are the side effects of total parenteral nutrition?

    Common side effects, or complications, of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) include: glucose abnormalities, liver dysfunction and catheter related infection. Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels), as well as some liver dysfunction, is seen in over 90 percent of people receiving TPN.