What type of genome do flaviviruses have?
Flaviviridae are small enveloped viruses hosting a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The complete genome is 9500–12,500 nucleotides long.
Is flavivirus DNA or RNA?
The Flaviviridae are a family of positive, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. They are found in arthropods, (primarily ticks and mosquitoes), and can occasionally infect humans. Members of this family belong to a single genus, Flavivirus, and cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout the world.
Do flaviviruses have a nucleic acid based genome?
Like other RNA viruses, flaviviruses have a compact RNA genome that efficiently stores all the information required for the completion of the infectious cycle. The efficiency of this storage system is attributable to supracoding elements, i.e., discrete, structural units with essential functions.
What is genome cyclization?
Cyclization of the viral genome through long-range RNA-RNA interactions brings the 3′ end of the RNA near the polymerase-SLA complex. This conformation of the RNA allows the polymerase to reach the 3′ end of the genome, which is used as template for initiation of minus strand RNA synthesis.
What causes flavivirus?
Flaviviruses are named for the yellow fever virus; the word flavus means ‘yellow’ in Latin, and yellow fever in turn is named from its propensity to cause yellow jaundice in victims….
What is the flavivirus made of?
flavivirus, any virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses have enveloped and spherical virions (virus particles) that are between 40 and 60 nm (1 nm = 10−9 metre) in diameter. The flavivirus genome consists of nonsegmented single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ribonucleic acid).
What causes Flavivirus?
Flaviviruses are vector-borne RNA viruses that can emerge unexpectedly in human populations and cause a spectrum of potentially severe diseases including hepatitis, vascular shock syndrome, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, congenital abnormalities and fetal death.
Which blood cells are attacked by Flavivirus?
Dendritic cells in particular appear to be a common initial target for flaviviruses. When infected, dendritic cells migrate to lymphoid organs where viral replication takes place allowing for flavivirus dissemination into circulation and internal organs (12).
Are flaviviruses zoonotic?
Zoonosis caused by tick-borne flaviviruses These viruses circulate mostly in forests, moorlands, or in steppe regions and are transmitted between ticks feeding on rodents and other mammals.
What does Flavivirus look like?
The capsid of viruses in this family are icosahedral shaped and around the viral capsid a spherical shaped envelope is present. The capsids are approximately 40-50 nanometers in diameter and are composed of a single type of capsid protein. Unlike cellular mRNA, the genome of Flavivirus lacks a poly-A tail.
Who discovered flavivirus?
Sir Walter Reed (1851-1902) discovers the first virus when he conclusively demonstrates that yellow-fever is transmitted by the bite of the mosquito Aëdes aegypti. Sir Walter experimentally transfers the disease via filtered serum of one infected individual to another healthy individual.
What are the symptoms of flavivirus?
What are the symptoms of Flaviviridae? General symptoms include fever, body aches, headache, and joint pain. Some of these illness may also cause vomiting and diarrhea. The diseases caused by Flaviviridae viruses can be fatal.
What is the genome of Flavivirus?
The Flaviviridae family comprises a large group of enveloped viruses with a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity. The genome of flavivirus encodes ten proteins, and each of them plays a different and important role in viral infection.
Are flaviviruses still a hidden threat to global health?
Flaviviruses are still a hidden threat to global human safety, as we are reminded by recent reports of dengue virus infections in Singapore and African-lineage-like Zika virus infections in Brazil. Therapeutic drugs or vaccines for flavivirus infections are in urgent need but are not well developed.
How many e monomers are in the virus core?
The virus core, within a lipid bilayer, has a less-ordered structure than the external, icosahedral scaffold of 90 glycoprotein E dimers. The three E monomers per icosahedral asymmetric unit do not have quasiequivalent symmetric environments.