What is the function of Deiodinase?

What is the function of Deiodinase?

The deiodinase family of enzymes mediates the activation and inactivation of thyroid hormone. The role of these enzymes in the regulation of the systemic concentrations of thyroid hormone is well established and underpins the treatment of common thyroid diseases.

Where is Deiodinase found?

Type II deiodinase occurs in the brain and brown adipose tissue of rats (but not in muscle of rats), and in the brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and thyroid gland in humans (Pallud et al. 1997). This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of T4 to T3.

Which Deiodinase enzyme is found mainly in pituitary & brain?

D1 is expressed mostly in the liver, kidney, thyroid, and pituitary; D2 is expressed primarily in the thyroid, central nervous system, pituitary, developing cochlea, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle; D3 is prevalently expressed in many fetal tissues, through the adult it is expressed in placenta, brain, and …

What does Deiodinase 2 do?

Whereas the type II deiodinase (D2) initiates thyroid hormone signaling by activating the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active T3 molecule, the type III deiodinase (D3) terminates thyroid hormone action by catalyzing the inactivation of both T4 and T3 molecules.

Is thyroid hormone a steroid?

Although steroid and thyroid hormones are neither structurally nor biosynthetically related, the existence of a common structure for their receptors supports the proposal that there is a large superfamily of genes whose products are ligand-responsive transcription factors.

How is thyroid inactivated?

Inactivation of thyroid hormones occurs by removal of an iodine atom on the inner ring, which converts thyroxine to the inactive reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), or which converts the active triiodothyronine to diiodothyronine (T2).

Is thyroid hormone made from cholesterol?

The steroid hormones are all derived from cholesterol.

What is the function of deiodinase?

The deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes that are used for the synthesis of the active form of thyroid hormone, T3. The deiodinases also catalyze the inactivation of the various forms of thyroid hormone. Three types of deiodinase exist, and these are called type I, type II, and type III deiodinase.

What is deiodinase type 3?

Deiodinase type 3 – The last type of Deiodinase enzyme, known as Deiodinase type 3, is quite different from the first two types. While type 1 and type 2 of these enzymes promotes the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine, Deiodinase type 3 rather has the opposite effect.

What is deoxydeiodinase type 1?

Deiodinase type 1 enzymes are found in tissue throughout the entire human body. The function of this enzyme is crucial to the purpose of the Thyroid gland and, of course, Thyroid hormones.

What factors affect the activity of deiodinase type 1 enzymes?

It should be noted that deiodinase type 1 enzyme activity can be adversely affected by a number of different factors. Obesity, metabolic disorders and leptin resistance are known to cause impairments in the activity of these enzymes; thus leading to less thyroxine being converted to triiodothyronine.