What is Interkinetic nuclear migration?
Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a common feature of developing neuroepithelia, consisting of the periodic movement of the cell nucleus in phase with cell-cycle progression. By moving the nuclei via INM, it is therefore possible to maximize the number of divisions per apical surface available (Fish et al, 2008).
Where does Interkinetic nuclear migration occur?
Interkinetic nuclear migration is the process in which the nucleus migrates within the cytoplasm of elongated neuroepithelial progenitor cells and in phase with the cell cycle (Frade, 2002; Baye and Link, 2007) (see Fig. 1 A). M phase always occurs at the apical surface and S phase in more basal locations.
What are radial cells?
Radial glial cells, or radial glial progenitor cells (RGPs), are bipolar-shaped progenitor cells that are responsible for producing all of the neurons in the cerebral cortex. Their cell bodies (somata) reside in the embryonic ventricular zone, which lies next to the developing ventricular system.
What is radial migration?
The most common form of cell transit is known as radial migration. In many regions of the nervous system (for instance, the cerebral cortex and retina) each cell type settles at a specific radial location, giving rise to a laminar structure in which neurons are arranged according to their type and function.
What is the function of radial cells?
Radial glia are specialized cells in the developing nervous system of all vertebrates, and are characterized by long radial processes. These processes facilitate the best known function of radial glia: guiding the radial migration of newborn neurons from the ventricular zone to the mantle regions.
What is the function of glia cells?
Primarily, glial cells provide support and protection to the neurons (nerve cells), maintain homeostasis, cleaning up debris, and forming myelin. They essentially work to care for the neurons and the environment they are in.
What is the purpose of dendrites?
The Dendrites Dendrites are appendages that are designed to receive communications from other cells. They resemble a tree-like structure, forming projections that become stimulated by other neurons and conduct the electrochemical charge to the cell body (or, more rarely, directly to the axons).
What is glia in the brain?
Glia are non-neuronal cells (i.e. not nerves) of the brain and nervous system. There are a variety of subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, each of which is specialised for a particular function.
What happens in the dendrites?
Dendrites. Dendrites are tree-like extensions at the beginning of a neuron that help increase the surface area of the cell body. These tiny protrusions receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma.
What is the role of dendrites in a neuron?
Nerve cells (neurons) have extensive processes called dendrites. These occupy a large surface area of a neuron. They receive many signals from other neurons and contain specialized proteins that receive, process, and transfer these to the cell body.
What is an astrocyte?
Astrocytes are a population of cells with distinctive morphological and functional characteristics that differ within specific areas of the brain. Postnatally, astrocyte progenitors migrate to reach their brain area and related properties.