What is hypothalamic-pituitary axis?

What is hypothalamic-pituitary axis?

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, or HPA axis as it is commonly called, describes the interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are located just above the brainstem, while the adrenal glands are found on top of the kidneys.

What is the HPA axis and how does it work?

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, or HPA axis, is a term used to represent the interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands; it plays an important role the body’s response to stress. The pathway of the axis results in the production of cortisol.

What organs are in the pituitary hypothalamic axis?

Among the target organs that constitute the hypothalamic-pituitary-target organ axis are the thyroid, the adrenal glands, and the gonads.

Is HPA axis part of limbic system?

The limbic system regulates our emotions and memory and may play a role in HPA axis depression and other axis-related mood disorders.

What is an axis in physiology?

(noun) A line between two points that is used to give direction to an anatomical region.

What is the function of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis?

A major component of the homeostatic response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, an intricate, yet robust, neuroendocrine mechanism that mediates the effects of stressors by regulating numerous physiological processes, such as metabolism, immune responses, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

What is the target organ of TRH?

The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

What is the target of ACTH?

Adrenal cortex

Endocrine gland/ source of hormone Hormone Target organ or tissue
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) Adrenal cortex
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) Ovaries / testes (tubules)
LH (luteinizing hormone) Ovaries / testes (Leydig cells)
GH (growth hormone) All tissues

What is the physiology of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis?

Physiology of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis in the Male Testosterone synthesis and male fertility are the results of the perfect coordination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A negative feedback finely controls the secretion of hormones at the 3 levels.

What is the function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland?

The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all s …

How are gonadotropins secreted from the pituitary gland?

Gonadotropin (FSH and LH) secretion by the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus through the release of GnRH. GnRH, a 10-amino-acid peptide, is synthesized within several hypothalamic nuclei and released into the hypophysial portal circulation to stimulate the release of both gonadotropins.

What is the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone axis?

This axis includes neuroendocrine networks that integrate wide ranging internal and external inputs to coordinate reproductive competence. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the principal regulator of reproduction. GnRH controls gonadotrophin secretion and subsequently, gonadal (testicular) function.