What is clinically significant hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia—defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L—is a common and important electrolyte imbalance that can be seen in isolation or, as most often is the case, as a complication of other medical illnesses (eg, heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, pneumonia).
What causes hyponatremia low sodium?
In hyponatremia, the level of sodium in blood is too low. A low sodium level has many causes, including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
Can anxiety cause low sodium levels?
In conclusion, we found that anxiety is not an isolated risk factor for hyponatremia, the increased tendency of hyponatremia among anxious patients appears only after initiation of SSRIs.
What is a critical hyponatremia level?
Abstract. Patients with severe (serum sodium ≤120 mEq/L), symptomatic hyponatremia can develop life-threatening or fatal complications from cerebral edema if treatment is inadequate and permanent neurologic disability from osmotic demyelination if treatment is excessive.
Does low sodium affect sleep?
Low-sodium diets can cause fitful sleep, researchers have found. In a study of nine men, the test subjects woke up more often during the night and slept less soundly when they were on low-sodium diets than when their diets included normal or high amounts of sodium, the researchers said.
What is seronegative spondyloarthritis (spa)?
Seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with common clinical and aetiological features, including axial and peripheral inflammatory arthritis, enthesitis, extra-articular manifestations and a close link to the presence of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B … Seronegative spondyloarthritis
How is hyponatremia classified according to the jointjoint European guidelines?
Joint European guidelines classify hyponatremia in adults according to serum sodium concentration, as follows: Mild: 130-134 mmol/L Moderate: 125-129 mmol/L Profound: < 125 mmol/L
What are the possible complications of rapid correction of hyponatremia?
Correction of serum sodium that is too rapid can precipitate severe neurologic complications. Most individuals who present for diagnosis, versus individuals who develop it while in an inpatient setting, have had hyponatremia for some time, so the condition is chronic, and correction should proceed accordingly.
What are undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USPA and axial SpA)?
Recent developments have expanded the concept of SpA to include undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (USpA) and axial SpA. Undifferentiated SpA includes patients who are diagnosed with SpA, but do not fall into any specific subtype. 2 Axial SpA includes patients with both nonradiographic (AS without sacroiliitis) and with radiographic findings. 30