Is melanonychia common in children?
Melanonychia in children is less common than in adults and it is burdened by less well-defined criteria concerning diagnosis and management. According to the literature, almost all cases of LM seen in children are benign and nail melanoma is rare.
What causes melanonychia striata?
Melanonychia striata is due to increased activity of melanocytes or melanocytic hyperplasia in the nail matrix with subsequently increased melanin deposition in the nail plate.
How common is subungual melanoma in kids?
Because subungual melanoma is exceedingly rare in children, these authors argue that melanonychia in prepubertal children should be treated the same as nevi, either congenital or acquired, in other locations. This means that most of the lesions can just be observed.
How long does it take for melanonychia to go away?
In the majority of iatrogenic melanonychia cases, the pigmentation develops 3-8 weeks after the initiation of treatment and fades away 6-8 weeks following treatment cessation .
Can benign melanonychia become malignant?
In some cases, it can be harmless, or benign, but in others, it can be malignant. There are many possible causes of melanonychia via melanocytic activation, as well as factors that can make it more likely.
What causes Onychophagy?
Onychophagy can begin because of severe stress, tension, or anxiety, but it can develop into a habit, which remains even when the stress or anxiety is gone. The habit of nail biting can become so familiar to sufferers that they are unaware they are picking at or biting their nails until they feel pain.
Is melanonychia common?
 The incidence reportedly varies from 1% in whites, 10%–20% in Japanese and Asians, and 77–100% in African Americans.  Racial melanonychia is more common in fingers (thumb, index finger), generally involves multiple nails [Figure 5] and the band width increasing with age.
Is melanonychia genetic?
Genetic Causes Longitudinal melanocytosis can occur with several rare genetic disorders in which skin hyperpigmentation (excess pigmentation) is a common symptom.
Is melanonychia fatal?
It can affect your fingernails or toenails. It can be in one nail, a few nails, or all of your nails. Melanonychia can have many different causes that range from harmless to potentially fatal.
Can we perform nail biopsies in children with melanonychia striata?
However, performing nail unit biopsies in children is particularly challenging and can result in permanent nail dystrophy. The aim of this study was to review the clinical and histologic characteristics of melanonychia striata in pediatric patients of Asian descent to aid in the clinical decision regarding nail biopsy.
What is longitudinal melanonychia striata?
We diagnosed longitudinal melanonychia (or melanonychia striata). Longitudinal melanonychia is the presence of a pigmented longitudinal streak along the nail plate from increased melanin production and deposition within the nail plate.
Does melanonychia affect children differently to adults?
Melanonychia can present in individuals of all ages, including children, and affects both sexes equally. It is more prevalent in people with skin of colour, especially Fitzpatrick skin type V and VI. Nearly all Afro-Caribbean people will develop black-brown pigmentation of the nails by the age of 50.
Is nail melanonychia normally pigmented?
It is not normally pigmented. Melanocytes typically lie dormant in the proximal nail matrix where the nail originates. Melanin is deposited into the growing nail when melanocytes are activated, resulting in a pigmented band — this is longitudinal melanonychia.