How is stress and strain related to elastic deformation?
Elasticity is a measure of the deformation of an object when a force is applied. Objects that are very elastic like rubber have high elasticity and stretch easily. Stress is force over area. Strain is change in length over original length.
What are stress and strain tensors?
Stress and Strain Tensors Stress at a point. Imagine an arbitrary solid body oriented in a cartesian coordinate system. A number of forces are acting on this body in different directions but the net force (the vector sum of the forces) on the body is 0.
What type of strain is elastic deformation?
Elastic deformation Engineering strain is modeled by infinitesimal strain theory, also called small strain theory, small deformation theory, small displacement theory, or small displacement-gradient theory where strains and rotations are both small.
What is elasticity tensor?
The Hooke’s law relationship between stress and strain, each of which are 2nd rank tensors, so that the elasticity tensor is a 4th rank tensor. …
How elastic deformation is caused?
Elastic deformation can be caused by applying shear forces or tension / compression stress. In contrast, plastic deformation occurs when these stresses are sufficient to permanently deform the metal. In plastic deformation, breaking of bonds is caused by the dislocation of atoms.
What is plastic deformation and elastic deformation?
When energy goes into changing the shape of some material and it stays changed, that is said to be plastic deformation. When the material goes back to its original form, that’s elastic deformation. Most materials have an amount of force or pressure for which they deform elastically.
What is elastic stress?
Elastic deformation When an elastic stress is applied to a polymer, the chains are stretched in the loading direction. Elastic stretching occurs in the covalent bonds between the atoms along the chain backbone.
Why stress is called tensor?
The restoring force per unit area is called stress. Stress has both magnitude and direction but it does not follow the vector law of addition thus, it is not a vector quantity. Instead, stress follows the coordinate transformation law of addition, and hence, stress is considered as a tensor quantity.
What is elastic deformation and plastic deformation?
Elastic deformation is the deformation that disappears upon removal of the external forces causing the alteration and the stress associated with it. Plastic deformation is a permanent deformation or change in shape of a solid body without fracture under the action of a sustained force.
What is deviatoric stress tensor?
Deviatoric stress is the difference between the stress tensor σ and hydrostatic pressure tensor p acting on the rock or soil mass.
Why is strain a tensor?
Strain, like stress, is a tensor. And like stress, strain is a tensor simply because it obeys the standard coordinate transformation principles of tensors. It can be written in any of several different forms as follows. They are all identical.
Where does elastic deformation occur?
Elastic deformation is the dominant form of deformation at shallow depths in the crust and lithosphere because both the temperature and pressure are low. However the crust and lithosphere are also brittle and when the stress is big enough, failure by fracture or frictional sliding also occurs.